Main Features of ORDM
Although ORDM has all the features as generally available in most of the Road Design Software, it has also a number of additional features. These and other aspects of ORDM can be described as below:

  • ORDM has 3D optimization facility (Plan, L-section and X-section) which permits to optimize the design of hill roads on the basis of minimizing the objective function of costs by satisfying the technical constraints..

  • ORDM provides the use of different type of Walls generally used as the Retaining as well as the Breast Walls especially in hill roads. A wide range of wall templates is available for wall selection depending upon geology, ground slope and the height or depth of the road X-section. In addition, one can also edit on section-wise basis through data table of the shape and sizes and graphic view as well. Wall parameters can be edited to generate the shape and size as per the need of designer.

  • Details design of walls can also be conducted for critical walls as per the need of the designer. However, the earthwork quantity by considering wall quantity could be generated with exact drawing of walls in such X-sections.

  • TIN data created by Delaunay Triangulation Method (like: Land Development, CREDO, and others, etc) can be further optimized to increase the accuracy of TIN by making them closer to equilateral. Practical experiments carried on these aspects show that there could be 5 to 15 % increase in the accuracy of these TIN data which will enhance the quality of road plan and design.

  • TIN created by these and other methods are classified into five different categories such as excellent, very good, good, satisfactory, bad, etc. Once these triangles are viewed in different colors of categories, the triangles can be further edited by applying Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) to improve the quality of these TIN. This is an alternative unique option for editing the TIN terrain surface by using the field information, data and photos, etc.

  • Contour surface provides a clear idea on the accuracy of terrain surface in which further planning and design of road project has to be performed. But there are many cases when the contours surface of the critical zones may not math with the information collected during field survey. On the other hand, the contours once corrected by using field data and information should also generate such TIN surface which could re-generate the same source of the contour surface (edited). This is a special option which can help to build TIN as per the actual information, sketches, and photos which can not be processed directly. Practical experiences on critical hills show that the TIN data collected in the steep hill slopes might require further editing as the survey points measured on the steep landslide of the hill slope might not be sufficient to generate real contour terrain surface. ORDM permits to update TIN surface as per the field observations, sketches, and the photos to enhance the TIN surface building process in general.

  • All aspects of TIN surface building can be carried-out in a separate working window on the basis of capturing the TIN data on area-wise basis. This is a unique way of this kind to enable the user with alternative option to edit TIN surface by generating contours instantly without updating or mixing the edited TIN surface to the main TIN surface data. The process of building TIN surface is governed by the Geo-sloping procedure which has automatic operating steps to build a reliable terrain surface. Thus user can assess the result before updating the TIN data to the main TIN surface.

  • Effective editing facilities of TIN are developed to enhance the accuracy and the reliability of TIN surface which can minimize the quantity variation between the design and construction phases.

  • Linear object like road can be designed on the basis of creating project data file of any road length required while creating TIN surface. Practical design works carried on this alternative facility of ORDM also confirm the usefulness of this approach, as this approach shall also ensure the automatic design transfer of design data between the two neighboring overlapping areas in two sub-project data.

  • Once the TIN surface is created, one can extract a number of sub-project data files to provide alternative options for several road planners who can work independently on these project data files to carry the task of road planning and design simultaneously. When such individual designs are merged together, all aspects of further designs can also be continued without any limitations and constraints. This facility can also help to engage a team of experts in the same TIN surface to carry the tasks of planning and design.

  • X-section Terrain Model is introduced as an alternative to TIN Model in order to avoid the variation of the quantity estimations between the design (design drawings) and construction phases (as-build drawings). This is also a unique approach based on the consideration of the practical difficulties of the road construction in the hilly terrain. Thus road designer can also conduct his/her road design through X-section model in which the intersection points considered as the centre line of the horizontal alignment are determined in the same way as it is done in TIN surface data. But one can also conduct the entire 3D optimization of plan, profile, and X-section within the boundary limits of road corridor along these X-sections considered as terrain model.

  • Optimum Road Design Model which is the outcome of theoretical and practical works carried-out in several countries such as Russia, Syria, Bhutan and Nepal over a period of more than two decades. ”Geo-Sloping” developed in ORDM has the new procedure to enhance the accuracy of TIN (Triangular Irregular Network) data structure of Digital Terrain Model. Geo-Sloping process automatically converts different types of surface/height data into Digital Elevation Model (DEM) which will enhance the quality of terrain surface essential to search the optimum designs of plan, profile and X-sections.

  • GIS facility is being widely used by many planners including road planners. In this context, ORDM also provides an Engineering GIS facility to store and retrieve the geo-technical and other information stored in the attribute table on location-wise basis. Different field observations including geo-technical data, photos of the critical zones can also be stored just like any other GIS software in order to use them together with other data in fixing the road alignments. Both the quantitative as well as describe data could be stored in the attribute tables. These data can also be retrieved from these attribute tables while extracting the L-section and X-section along the road corridor in order to use these data for design purposes including the preparation of geological profile that could be used for slope stability analysis as well.

  • Road Templates can be created with the help of graphic display on the basis of considering different zones which can have the complex geo-technical, hydrological, social, and the environmental parameters. ORDM permits to select the Road Templates on the basis of utilizing a customized wizard view of geo-technical data, information, photo, topography, and other factors along the road corridor considered. Once the Road Templates are selected from one road zone/section to another road zone/section, the X-section design data can be generated on chainage-wise/section basis. These road template data once generated can be used for creating the super-elevations for each curve depending upon the speed and the radius. However, user can also be provided with an alternative facility for editing the super-elevation parameters of run-out, run-off, and extra widening, etc. Road Templates data once generated by considering the super elevations and extra-widening, these data can also be further edited.

  • The Dynamic Link of plan, profile and X-section has been established so that any change made at any stage could be updated instantly by ORDM. Thus the change of any design parameter does not involve extra job for the designer. In this context, a change in the X-section design can be instantly updated in the output of road corridor of the horizontal alignment. All the changes made at any stage of road design could be updated instantly while processing these data to generate the output results.

  • An approximate design of the L-section can be instantly made based on the Road Design Standards which can be supplied as design specification and norms. Once preliminary design is generated instantly, one can edit the vertical alignment on the basis of assessment of horizontal alignment and the X-sections. Previous design of L-section can be also imported instantly for further use as this will increase the efficiency of the entire optimization process which could bring the necessary changes in the location of the horizontal alignment.

  • Design optimization in each X-section can be carried-out in order to search the must optimum point which might be either left or right side of the centre point of X-section. Such an optimization can be carried-out either manually or automatically based on the optimization criteria which should be supplied as input data. A wide range of optimization criteria including costs of earthwork quantity, wall costs, pavement costs, land costs and the environmental costs can be considered by the user.
  • Once the optimum points are determined, the lines joining these points can be called as the best lines in the relation with the centre line of the horizontal alignment which can be shifted on the basis of minimizing the absolute deviation (distance) between the centre line points and the optimum points by satisfying all the technical constraints of the road geometry. Such an optimization can be carried-out either in an automatic method or subjective method based on the judgment on the actual graphic view of the centre line and the optimum points. This is one of the unique achievements of this kind for the first time in the context of optimum planning and design of the hill roads in particular. Practical experimental works conducted on these aspects of the hill roads show that there could be a need of several iterations process in order to reach to a convergence stage to reduce substantially the overall costs of the road project.

  • Most of the design processes are based on the customized wizards with a view to simplify the complex procedures of designing the alignments and X-sections. Output of road designs including, horizontal alignments with contours, road corridor and other features can be instantly generated in different output formats at any paper size and map scale. Output of X-sections with walls can also be generated in different formats. L-sections can also be generated in several output formats which could be selected by user. All the output can be generated in both the ORDM format and DXF format of AutoCAD software.

  • Hazard assessment can also be carried out on the basis of assigning the ratings of different parameters such as: ground slope, geology, topography, hydrology, and other parameters as well.

  • Several customized wizards have been introduced in order to simplify the time consuming operational steps in the various stages of the road designs. Most of the operating steps are customized to provide instant alternative options by providing the Next operating step. Different customized operational wizards are also made available to the maximum extent possible in both the design procedure and output generation.

  • Preliminary designs of horizontal alignment, vertical alignment and the X-sections can be generated instantly on the basis of design criteria and the technical constraints in order to avoid the details operational steps of different Road Designs. General criteria depending upon specific tasks can be used to carry the complex tasks of road design. For an example, the use of road walls on the side slope can be generated automatically on the basis of considering ground slope, height or depth of the section including geology, hydrology and other factors as well. Similarly, the preliminary design of vertical profile can be conducted automatically on the basis of minimizing the total costs by satisfying the technical constraints of maximum gradient, minimum curve length, and the control points.

  • Optimum points of each X-section can be determined automatically on the basis of considering either the ratio of cut and fill or the total costs including the costs of earthwork, walls, earth work transportation, reinforcement, land value and other costs. Once the optimum points are determined, one can edit by using costs variation graph with offset distance. The cut-fill balanced concept of Green Roads known as ‘Environmentally Sound Low Costs Roads’ can also be fulfilled by supplying the input of the ratio of Cut and Fill of the hilly roads. In the absence of this facility of searching the optimum points based the input criteria of cut and fill ratio, the objectives as required by Green Roads can not be fulfilled.

  • Most of the critical zones of the hill rods require the detail analysis of the Slope Stability on the Road Sections of the embankment and Excavation as well. ORDM has also a full facility of conducting such stability analysis for which the input data could be imported either from the road section or from the ground surface of the digital terrain model. One can also import the input data from DXF file of AutoCAD software.

  • Although a wide range different types of side walls available in the template library of ORDM can be selected as per the suitability of each X-section, there are many cases when one has to conduct the design of these walls in order to determine the optimum shape and sizes of these walls. In this context, ORDM has also a full option to carry such details design on different types of walls which could be used as the Retaining as well as the Breast Walls.

  • ORDM has a complete facility of importing and exporting of the road design output in the standard data exchange format called as LandXML which is also compatible to the design output of most of road software including MX Road/MOSS, Land Development, & others, etc. In addition, the input/output files can be imported from/to DXF files of AutoCAD software.
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