ORDM Background
Optimum road design is not only a pure engineering achievement but a fine piece of art resulted through a careful carving of alignments, structures, cross-drainage, and pavement structure and confirmed from a tactful examination of several geo-technical and socio-economic factors. Specially, the hill road construction is not only complex, but also very expensive, and so the approach to it needs to be creative and innovative armored by fully recognized methodologies and techniques that are project-specific, realistic, and cost-effective. Road economics that includes construction costs, maintenance costs, user costs, and environmental costs need great attention and hence the optimum design of a road project requires the application of both objective and subjective methods.

Optimum solutions for design and planning of hill roads are essential not only for cost saving but also for sustainable management with due considerations to environmental degradation and natural disasters. Many mathematical models on the hill terrain roads do not fully ensure the accuracy of the results. Although several quantitative methods have already been developed to solve some of the typical tasks of hill road transportation networks, there are still a number of technical issues requiring conceptual clarity and redefinitions of the quantitative theories on the geography. Optimum solutions on hill transportation planning cannot be found successfully unless these problematic issues of geography are addressed in the application of the dynamic methods.

One of the problems of the hill road network planning methods is that they do not always ensure the generation of reliable terrain surface and alternatives solutions leading to optimum engineering planning. Until now, no concrete method exists to verify the accuracy of the terrain model created by using the height data measured generally through the land instrument survey procedures depending upon the earth roughness. In this context, the TIN model is widely used for representing the terrain surface by different computerized models. But there are many cases when the terrain surface data need to be regenerated before one can successfully apply the TIN data structure for creating a reliable terrain surface. Thus the surface/height data collected randomly by different procedures including digitized contour data, height data measured by land instrument survey, and other types of data, have to be examined whether these data need to be converted into DEM or not before one can apply TIN model. Generally the optimum solution of many engineering objects including road transportation networks can be determined by searching several alternatives through optimization methods. The optimum solution cannot be determined until the existing concepts are redefined so that the standard class of optimization algorithms could be applied directly. Optimization of the hill road transportation network is a complex mathematical task. Although many transportation engineers are relying on their practical experiences to optimize planning of hill road network, no such built-in optimization technique to plan and design hill road is yet available in the commercial market. Experience based engineering planning and designs conducted by experts vary in costs by 10 to 30 percent even for the same set of standards.

The method of interpolation for terrain surface/height points can vary from one type of surface data structure to another type of data structure. The establishment of the general method which can consider a diversity of the terrain surface can help in the automatic generation of DEM data without deeply understanding the technical procedures as generally required in the use of many other systems. The algorithms required to process one set of terrain data structures may not always be suitable for processing other types of data structures to generate reliable terrain model of DEM. However, the newly developed method called as Geo-Sloping has fully considered these and other aspects. Thus the Geo-Sloping Method should be considered as a necessary interface required for using the TIN model on surface data generally measured in a random manner.

In the absence of the application of Geo-Sloping procedures, there might be many cases of errors on terrain model due to irrational distribution of the surface points as it is found in many engineering projects including the hill road transportation networks. Therefore, Geo-Sloping Method should be considered as an additional, but complementary interface to the TIN model. Based on the classification of digital terrain models like point surfaces, string surfaces, string & point surfaces, section surfaces, contour surfaces and other surfaces, the algorithms considered by Geo-Sloping procedures are also dependent upon the nature, utilities, and the characteristics of the geographical features. Application of Geo-Sloping Method can also help different users in developing the general norms, specifications, and the guidelines on the preparation of the terrain models specially for using the height data measured by the land instrument survey procedures of the linear as well as non-linear objects.
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